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Child Protection and GBV Rapid Assessment on the Effects of Drought on Children and Women in Somaliland (February 2022) – Somalia


This rapid assessment was used to find out the effect of drought on children and women in Somaliland in order to understand the gaps and challenges faced by children and women living in drought affected areas in order to develop a comprehensive drought response plan.

The rapid assessment was carried out from 15-17 February 2022 in rural areas across all regions of Somaliland. The survey adopted a mixed research design to collect qualitative and quantitative data from respondents. In particular, it used a cross-sectional survey design to collect data from a large number of respondents. It adopted a method of survey interview and FGD for the implementation of the data collection procedure. The rapid assessment was applied in an interview guide – encompassing closed and open items, and FGD guide tools to direct the recording of research participant data. Trained interviewers conducted the investigative interview using Mobile Tech, but FGD researchers/social workers with in-depth research skills conducted it. The sampling approaches were stratified probability sampling and purposive non-probability sampling. The sampling frame for the evaluation was taken from the PESS (UNFPA, 2014) and was used in a sample of 1,575 and 13 focus groups. Sample size was determined using an online sample size calculator. The data collected was analyzed using descriptive statistics and thematic analysis method. In addition, research ethics were highly valued for protecting the identity, integrity and privacy rights of respondents, as well as for reporting data in bulk instead of highlighting cases. individual.

From the rapid assessment analysis, the key findings are as follows Demographics – 29% of respondents were from Maroodijeex, 19% from Awdal, 20% from Togdheer, 8% from Saaxil, 15% from Sanaag and 9 percent came from Sool and their respective districts and villages – 78 percent of respondents said they were pastoralists. Most of the people in the different regions were pastoralists, however, most agro-pastoralists are found in the regions of Maroodijeex (10.25%), Awdal (7.08%) and Togdheer (5.16%). This suggests considering the appropriate support for each category of people.

  • 55% of the respondents were women, which is also important for the evaluation, because women can actually present how the drought has affected them.

  • 71% of the respondents have never been to school because the interview targets people in rural areas, schools are not available in their respective localities or the school system has been set up recently because the respondents were only adults.

  • Most of those who never attended school were women (41.07%). The second most respondents said they attended primary school (15.78%), but more men attended primary school than women. This suggests the need to extend the education system to rural areas by providing them with appropriate support, including the construction of schools, sensitization of parents to enroll their children in school, and in particular the promotion of education of girls in rural areas.

  • The regions of Maroodijeex, Sanaag and Sool are regions where women who have never attended school are very high and much higher than men; 18.41 percent,

10.47% and 5.42% respectively compared to the men of their counterparts.

  • 44 percent of female respondents and 41 percent of male respondents were married respectively, meaning that as most of the respondents were responsible for families, they could truly reflect the effect of the drought on their households, especially children and the women. The others were divorced, widowed and single; 3.64%, 6.81% and 4.83% respectively.

  • 32% of respondents were between 31 and 40 years old and 23% were between 41 and 50 years old.

  • 47.2% had female heads of household, including widowed, divorced and single women; 5.56%, 2.58% and 1.19% respectively.

Household size:

  • The average household size of surveyed households was 7.5.

  • 89.55 percent of households surveyed had children with the maximum number of children of 13 and the minimum number of children of 1 child.

  • The average number of children 5.7 with the average number of girls 2.83 and boys 2.96. This suggests that the average number of children of girls and boys is almost similar in the surveyed households.

  • The assessment revealed that 17% of surveyed households have at least one disabled child and confirmed that children with special needs are more affected by the drought than children without disabilities.

  • Maroodijeex and Togdheer have more than half of disabled children with special needs and compared to other regions; Maroodijeex (35%) and Togdheer (16%), Sool (18%), Sanaag (13%), Awdal (11%) and Saaxil (7%).

Drought intensity:

  • According to the respondents, drought exists in all regions of Somaliland, but with varying intensity of severe drought (40.90%), extreme drought (22.43%) or moderate drought (24.93%) in almost all rural areas. Therefore, this suggests that there is an urgent need for support to rural populations, such as the distribution of food, water, medicine and fodder for livestock.

  • Drought is very tense in Baligubadle, Salaxley, Sawanaag and Faroweyne districts in Maroodijeex, villages under Oodweyne, Buhoodle and Burco districts in Togdheer districts, Lughaya and Saylac in Awdal, Ceel-Afweyn districts and Badhan in Sanaag, as well as the districts of Xudun and Laascaanood in Sool.